Tuesday, July 21, 2020
How Long Does Morphine Stay in Your System Addiction Drug Use Opioids Print How Long Does Morphine Stay in Your System? Morphine in Your Blood, Urine, Hair, Saliva By Buddy T facebook twitter Buddy T is an anonymous writer and founding member of the Online Al-Anon Outreach Committee with decades of experience writing about alcoholism. Learn about our editorial policy Buddy T Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on July 14, 2019 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on December 06, 2019 Verywell / Gary Ferster More in Addiction Drug Use Opioids Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Ecstasy/MDMA Hallucinogens Prescription Medications Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery In This Article Table of Contents Expand Effects Duration Detection Times Elimination Symptoms of Overdose Getting Help View All Back To Top Morphine is in a class of medications known as opiate (narcotic) analgesics. It works by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond to pain. It is prescribed to relieve moderate to severe pain, especially for around-the-clock relief of pain that cannot be controlled by other pain medications. Morphine is a Schedule II controlled substance, which means that it has accepted medical uses and a high risk for people developing unhealthy use patterns. Brand names for morphine include Avinza, Kadian, Morphabond, MS Contin, Oramorph SR, and Roxanol-T. Most workplaces rely on SAMHSAs 5-panel urine test which can detect the presence of morphine used within the last four days. Knowing how long the effects of morphine last, can help prevent accidental overdose or dangerous interactions with other medications or alcohol. How Long Does Morphine Stay in Your System? Blood: Up to 3 daysUrine: Up to 4 daysSaliva: Up to 3 daysHair: Up to 90 days How Long Does It Take to Feel Effects? Morphine is prescribed in several different forms, including a liquid solution and extended-release tablets and capsules. The timing of dosage is important for it to reach therapeutic levels but not a level that could cause an overdose. Different formulations of morphine have different onset times and durations: Extended-release morphine delivers the dosage in stages, the effects lasting for 12â"24 hoursInstant-release morphines effects begin within 15 to 60 minutes and last 4 to 6 hours Other effects of morphine besides pain suppression include: EuphoriaDepressing breathingConstricted pupilsReducing gastrointestinal activityDrowsinessDysphoriaAltered mental status The body becomes tolerant when morphine is used over time and dosage may need to be adjusted to provide the desired effects. Morphine also leads to dependence and the body can have withdrawal symptoms if it is stopped.?? For this reason, it is important to follow the schedule provided by your doctor when it is decided to stop morphine. How Long Does Morphine Last? Morphine has a short half-life, with half of it metabolized in 1.5 to 7 hours. Most of a single dose of morphine is eliminated in the urine within 72 hours. Morphine is broken down in the body by glucuronidation and sulfation. According to a 2014 study, Morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) are the main metabolites of morphine that may also show up on a drug test. Brand name products such as MS Contin can also contain lactose, polysorbate, black iron oxide, and colored dyes. If the drug test yields a positive test result, a physician at a medical review office will review the results and you will be contacted to determine if there is a good reason. If the results are negative, employers are told by the medical reviewer within 24 hours. Types of tests that can be used to detect morphine include blood, urine, hair, and saliva. There are not really good breath tests for detecting morphine. Hair and blood tests are used less often. Urine Morphine can show up on a urine test for up to four days after use. Urinalysis is the most commonly used method for testing for morphine and typically involves the enzyme-multiplied immune test. If morphine or any of the tested metabolites are present in the urine specimen in sufficient amounts, a visible colored line will show up in the test line region of the drug strip. The urine sample you provide will go through a secure chain of custody to end up at a testing laboratory to be screened, often with the SAMHSA 5 panel. The specimen will be tested for adulterants and the presence of the drug. The presence of the drug will be confirmed by a second test using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography. Blood Morphine can show also up on a blood test up to 3 days after use, but as these tests are more invasive and expensive, they are not commonly used in employment drug screenings. Saliva Morphine can show up on a saliva test about 3 days after use. The morphine detected in saliva is usually in the process of circulating through the blood, which is why these detection times are similar. That said, saliva-based drug testing is not approved by the FDA or SAMHSA for Federal Mandated Drug Testing and so is not likely to be used. Hair Morphine can show up on a hair follicle test for up to 90 days after use. False Positive Testing Most urine drug tests look for morphine. As a result, morphine use can easily be detected. That said, while urine drug tests are simple and affordable, they can return false-positive results for opiates like morphine. Poppy seeds can cause a false-positive test result for opiates. While only present in trace amounts, poppy seeds do contain enough codeine and morphine to show up on enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests that are often used in workplace and medical drug screenings.?? Additionally, certain medications, including allergy drugs containing diphenhydramine and doxylamine and quinolone antibiotics such as levofloxacin and ofloxacin can cause a false-positive opiate screening.?? As a result, testing to identify specific drugs, rather than classes of drugs, is needed to confirm a positive urine drug screen for morphine. Factors That Affect Detection Time Morphine is metabolized at different rates and can vary in how long it takes to show up in urine based on various factors. Dosage The more morphine present in the body, the longer it will take to be eliminated. Other Medications If the pathways involved in opioid metabolism are busy breaking down other substances in the body, it will also take longer for the drug to leave the body. Age Older patients metabolize morphine more slowly. Medical Conditions People with hepatic or renal impairments may also eliminate morphine more slowly. According to a 2009 review, there is no difference in metabolism amongst sexes. How to Get Morphine Out of Your System Morphine is broken down by the body and excreted in the urine, with most of a single dose eliminated after 72 hours. However, with longer use or heavier doses, the time it takes to clear out of the body can be longer. Exercising, drinking a lot of water, and other myths people might have about how to flush your system before a drug test are likely not going to work. The only way to get morphine out of your system is to stop taking the drug and allow your body time to metabolize and eliminate it. If you have been prescribed morphine, be aware that it can be detected on a urine drug screen such as those given for employment. Disclose your prescription to the testing lab so they can interpret your test accurately. Symptoms of Overdose A morphine overdose can happen when it interacts with other medications, when doses are given too close together, or too much morphine is taken. Never crush or cut an extended-release tablet or capsule as that may deliver too much morphine at one time. Some symptoms of morphine overdose include: Slow, shallow, or irregular breathingSleepinessLoss of consciousnessLimp or weak musclesCold, clammy skinSmall pupilsSlow or stopped heartbeatBlurred visionNauseaFainting Bystander training to reverse an opiate overdose with naloxone is available in your area. By administering naloxone, sometimes referred to by the brand name Narcan, someone experiencing a morphine overdose may regain consciousness and the ability to breathe. They may also begin to experience withdrawal symptoms. Taking additional opiates at this point will cause a second overdose and is not recommended. Naloxone is available over the counter many places and from the local health department. In case of a morphine overdose, call 911 or the poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. First-responders should be able to revive the victim with Narcan but only if they are notified soon enough. Interactions That Increase the Risk of Morphine Overdose Morphine depresses the respiratory system and slows the heart rate. As a 2018 review explains, when morphine is combined with these drugs, there is an increased risk of low blood pressure, sedation, and potentially fatal respiratory depression: Benzodiazepines and other CNS depressantsAnestheticsBarbituratesTranquilizersAntipsychoticsOther opioidsAlcoholAntihistaminesBaclofenCimetidineP-glycoprotein inhibitors such as quinidine A previous history of breathing problems, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are reasons to be even more cautious with the use of morphine. Understanding Opioid Overdoses Getting Help Symptoms of morphine withdrawal include muscle aches, insomnia, anxiety, nausea, and vomiting, and can begin as early as six hours after the last dose. Some people compare the symptoms to those of the flu. Symptom severity varies according to the frequency of use, tolerance, and overall health and metabolism. The acute physical effects of morphine withdrawal last for three to five days, but the psychological effects may persist for several weeks. Persisting patterns of binge and withdrawal can exacerbate problematic substance use. If you think you may be at risk for a substance use disorder, contact your doctor. There are many treatments available, including medication-assisted treatment (MATs) with methadone or buprenorphine, which can help with withdrawal. A 2017 review details the efficacy of MAT in the treatment of opioid use disorder. If you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant, discuss this with your doctor as there is a risk of dependence and withdrawal in newborns of mothers who have prolonged use of morphine. Dont breastfeed while you are taking morphine. According to the NIH, morphine will pass through your milk to your child and your child can also become dependent. If you or a loved one is experiencing symptoms of morphine addiction, help is available. Treatment providers can be found using the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations Behavioral Health treatment services locator.
Friday, May 22, 2020
In Henry David ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Civil DisobedienceÃ¢â¬ , Thoreau makes the claim that the best form of government is a government that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t govern at all. ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s paper pushes for the people to begin following the will of their conscience rather than blindly and foolishly follow the unjust idea of Ã¢â¬Å"majority ruleÃ¢â¬ . Throughout the paper Thoreau makes a point of stating that Ã¢â¬Å"majority ruleÃ¢â¬ is simply the will of the upper-class being forced into action over the rights and wills of the poorer minority. This paper openly criticizes and condemns many institutions and policies of the American National government. Because Thoreau wrote this paper during the Mexican-American War he uses in it, in addition to slavery, to reinforce his statement of all political decisions merely being the wills of the strongest citizens put into action. For the purpose of this assignment the paper has been divided into three significant parts, Thoreau did not have these divisions. In the third part of ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s paper he begins writing about his own acts of Ã¢â¬Å"civil disobedienceÃ¢â¬ . He moves from his discussion of his night in jail, talked about in the second part, to his various reasons for accepting or refusing to pay certain taxes. From here Thoreau continues to state that he is not sure how long he can maintain his resolve to deny the government, stating that he is in constant search of a reason to follow its laws. Thoreau then explains that the reason he did not follow the conventional paths of reform isShow MoreRelatedHenry David Thoreau s Civil Disobedience1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageseveryone s rights safe, our government is a democracy since we were once under a tyrannical government, and it keeps order. Three famous writers known as Henry David Thoreau with Civil Disobedience, Niccolo Machiavelli with The Qualities of a Prince, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau with The Origin of Civil Society wrote about a civilized socie ty versus a tyrannical government. Sometimes their views agreed with mine and other times they did not. Henry David Thoreau s writing, Civil Disobedience, he explainsRead MoreHenry David Thoreau s Civil Disobedience1123 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessociety, people have always done what they felt to be right. In Henry David Thoreau Ã¢â¬Å"Civil DisobedienceÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¯he stated Ã¢â¬Å"The only obligation which I have a right to assume, is to do at any time what I think right.Ã¢â¬ Although doing what you believe to be right may feel right, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not always the best decision in all situations. There are many situations where doing what you feel to be right can benefit you, but can affect others negatively. Thoreau believed that following the law, created by most of the peopleRead MoreHenry David Thoreau s Civil Disobedience933 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Henry David ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Civil Disobedience, he is writing to the American people. He is trying to spark a desire for change, for people to oppose their government without actions. He uses this work to criticize the American institut ion of slavery as well as the Mexican-American War. Thoreau is attempting to convey the importance of listening to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s conscience over the laws, believing that it is more important to do what they feel is right rather than listen to the laws given by the majority. ThoreauRead MoreHenry David Thoreau s Civil Disobedience1822 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesHenry David Thoreau, an American essayist, philosopher, and historian around the 1800s, composed Ã¢â¬Å"Civil DisobedienceÃ¢â¬ to uncover the rapid downfall of the American Government. Thoreau highlights Ã¢â¬Å"That Government does best when it does not govern at allÃ¢â¬ ; and when the men are most ready for It, that will be the type of Government they will have, a Government-free one (Thoreau 1). Thoreau expresses his bravery in his writing to bear his nationalistic attitude, showing his hostility towards the AmericanRead MoreHenry David Thoreau s Civil Disobedience904 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe two pieces of literature, Henry David ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Civil DisobedienceÃ¢â¬ and Harlan EllisonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Repent, Harlequin!Ã¢â¬â¢ Said the TicktockmanÃ¢â¬ , are two very distinct pieces of literature, but they are also very closely related. The quote is related to the short story because the concept of the quote is exemplified by the story. The machines are the people who conform, the leaders of the state by their heads are the Ticktockman and his staff, and the hero and enemy is Everett C. Marm, who is also knownRead MoreHenry David Thoreau s Civil Disobedience945 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Civil Disobedience expresses the need to prioritize thoughts and views over the dictates of laws. It attacks the American social policies and government as a slavery and Mexican Ã¢â¬â American War. Henry David ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s consistently argued that government rarely proves theyÃ¢â¬â¢re for the people and obtains its power from the majority because organization, however criticizes the legitimacy of governments viewpoints. Thoreau thoughts were peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s first option is to do what they believe is rightRead MoreHenry David Thoreau s Civil Disobedience And Machiavelli1360 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUnited States, a democratic society, allows all their citizens to vote. However, despite a system which enables the citizen to be independent, ironically it may sometimes encourage conformity. Both Henry David Thoreau, famous for his discussions on a subject that is a title of his essay Civil Disobedience and Machiavelli, author of The Qualities of the Prince, notice a pattern of conformity in society. When a major voting decision is not supported by a majority, people will often wait rather than advertiseRead MoreHenry David Thoreau s Civil Disobedience And Ralph Waldo Emerson s Self Reliance2846 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesto come. In fact, the transcendentalist movement is still alive in the modern day: as seen in our societies focus on individualism, nature and sensibility. This paper will discuss the ideas of transcendentalism through the work of Henry David ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Civil Disobedience and Ralph Waldo EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Self Reliance by comparing both works finding similarities and differences between them. To truly understand the most important members of the transcendentalist movement, it is first important to understandRead MoreHenry David Thoreau, Gandhi, and Martin Luther King Jr.s Use of Civil Disobedience562 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagesof civil disobedience is the Ã¢â¬Å"refusal to obey governmental demands or commands especially as a nonviolent and usually collective means of forcing concessions from the government.Ã¢â¬ Men such as Henry David Thoreau, Gandhi, and Martin Luther King Jr. have all used forms of civil disobedience and nonviolent protest to make changes in the world. These changes have made huge impacts on our societies and how we are able to live our everyday lives. Without these three men and their practice of civil disobedienceRead More Henry ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Influence on Martin Luther King Jr. Essay898 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHenry ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Influence on Martin Luther King Jr. Henry David Thoreau was a great American writer, philosopher, and naturalist of the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s whoÃ¢â¬â¢s writings have influenced many famous leaders in the 20th century, as well as in his own lifetime. Henry David Thoreau was born in Concord, Massachusetts in 1817, where he was later educated at Harvard University. Thoreau was a transcendentalist writer, which means that he believed that intuition and the individual conscience Ã¢â¬Å"transcendÃ¢â¬ experience
Thursday, May 7, 2020
When looking at and researching groups that have elements of primary, intimate, and task groups in the storming or conflict stage of group development, it is relatively easy to identify previous literature that has analyzed at least one element of this classification. Previous research has looked at almost every aspect of the three groups, including: dynamics of groups that involve same-sex members, internal group conflict, development of groups, and legitimacy in peer groups. However, most of the research I found involved conflict amongst task groups. The following four sources delve into the various levels of task and peer group conflict, whether interpersonal or task-oriented. Developmental Sequence in Small Groups Ã¢â¬â Bruce W. Tuckman, 1965 TuckmanÃ¢â¬â¢s article addresses four stages of group formation. Based off of observation of groups: therapy-group studies, T-group studies, and laboratory-group studies (Tuckman, 1965). After these observations, he was able to propose four stages of development: forming, storming, norming, performing (Tuckman, 1965). Forming, when group members come together and identify as a group. Storming, when group members start to rebel against certain traits of the group. Norming, when those conflicting feelings are overcome and cohesion is developed. Performing, when the group organizes and executes a specific task. The data he compiled was qualitative in nature and was taken from twenty-six therapy groups, 11 training groups, and theoreticalShow MoreRelatedThe Storming Phase Of Group Development1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthis proposal is to research why members, who find themselves in a group that has elements of an intimate and task group, continue their membership after the group enters into the storming phase of group development. That is to say, why members stay involved after expressing frustration and disagreement over decisions that are made. This research proposal is designed to identify the key factors of why members, who represent their group culture, find it easy to complain about the balance of power inRead MoreHow The Storming Stage Affects Members Of Fraternities And Sororities1201 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesby the group as more important than the conflict and will continue to function normally once the conflicted is reconciled and that group returns to the norming stage. My research will, hopefully, identify how the storming stage affects members who already feel dissatisfied with their organization versus those that are satisfied with their group prior to moments of conflict. Introduction: The purpose of this focus group is to identify why members of fraternities and sororities, groups that containRead MoreSociology and Social Structure1524 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSocial structure is the way society is organized into predictable relationships. There are five elements when you break down social structure. The first being status. We usually associate having a status to the amount of influence, wealth and fame. But sociologists use the term status to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society, from the lowest to the highest. Examples of this are being a son or daughter, dental technician or the president of theRead MoreSociological Theories For Deviance Fall Under The Concept Of Primary Deviance1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAccording to sociologist Edwin Lemert, the majority of sociological theories for deviance fall under the concept of primary deviance. However, Lemert considered secondary deviance to be more im portant. Everyone is guilty of primary deviance. However, this does not mean that they perceive themselves to be a bad person. This is perception is where secondary deviance comes in. With secondary deviance, the individual, is labeled by the act of deviance that they committed, whether it is by themselvesRead MoreDifferent Types of Groups in Society2176 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesINTRODUCTION Groups are a fundamental part of social life. They can be very small - just two people - or very large. They can be highly rewarding to their members and to society as a whole, but there are also significant problems and dangers with them. All this makes them an essential focus for research, exploration and action. Just how we define group and the characteristics or ideas we use has been a matter of debate for many years. The significance of collectivities like families, friendshipRead MoreThe Relationship Of Domestic Violence1523 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesverbal, and emotional abuse. Her mother was abused by her father. Sandra was also molested by her step-brother and there was a point where she wanted to kill herself and her parents. She ran away from home and was placed into a group home when she was 15. She left the group home at the age of 17 and was abusing drugs and alcohol; she went to rehab and has been clean for 3 years. She met her boyfriend in rehab, she did finish high school and she joined job corp. Her part-time job isnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough forRead MoreHistory of Management Theory Essay1113 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLA 71112 318-918-7413 Troythompson98@yahoo.com MSM 500 May 21, 2010 Class Instructor: Dr. David Bouvin Ellis University Introduction People and processes are the main elements under management purview, and it is interesting to learn how managerial philosophy pertaining to these two elements has evolved from the Industrial Revolution throughout the Progression Era and into the modern workplace. The purpose of this paper will focus on Frederick TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s Scientific Management,Read MoreCommunication Is A Dynamic Process Composed By Multiple Elements And Steps922 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCommunication is a dynamic process composed by multiple elements and steps: a sender, encoding, messages, channels, noises, a receiver, decoding, the receiverÃ¢â¬â¢s response and feedback, and context. It may be intentional or unintentional and it is always influenced by factors such as time, topic and circumstances as well as oneÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural background (Jandt, 1998: 27). Verbal communication is composed by sounds, words and language, which has a direct relationship with culture, as affirmed by the Sapir-WhorfRead MoreErik son Theory2711 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesview of the world will be one of trust. Should the parents fail to provide a secure environment and to meet the childs basic need a sense of mistrust will result. According to Erik Erikson, the major developmental task in infancy is to learn whether or not other people, especially primary caregivers, regularly satisfy basic needs. If caregivers are consistent sources of food, comfort, and affection, an infant learns trust- that others are dependable and reliable. If they are neglectful, or perhapsRead MoreSociology and A. Primary Group2157 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Introduction to Sociology Test II Multiple Choice: Choose the Best Possible Answer (.75 point each) 1. Which of the following is an example of interactional vandalism? a. Groups attack storeowners following a false arrest of a local resident. b. Police repeatedly hit a driver whose car had a broken taillight. c. Students vandalize campus or community property following a victorious football game. d. A student shouts out, Ã¢â¬Å"Hey teachÃ¢â¬â¢, lookinÃ¢â¬â¢ good today!Ã¢â¬ e. all of the above 2. Wearing a new suit
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction The Topic: This assignment highlights the incident of the Deepwater Horizon oil spillage in the Mexican Gulf which took place from April 2010, as well as a brief explanation of the financial consequences faced by BP. It also discusses the potential implications of this event regarding BPÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate governance regulations. Explanation of the Event: Deepwater Horizon was a deepwater mobile offshore drilling unit. We will write a custom essay sample on Study of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon BP oil spillage in the Mexican Gulf or any similar topic only for you Order Now The rig was so high in length and width that it could easily conduct its operations in deep waters. It was owned by Transocean Ltd. Then Transocean Ltd and BP had a leasing contract until 2013. BP planned to drill a well through this rig and it started the drilling process in February 2010. In April 2010, a very big explosion in the Mexican Gulf was caused on the Deepwater Horizon which was recorded as the highest oil spill in the US history. The Deepwater Horizon was sunk deeply and the oil was continuously flowing into the Gulf of Mexico. According to R, Z (2010), 206 million gallons of oil was spewed. Around 126 workers were managed to be evacuated from the affected area, whereas 11 workers were missing who were later presumed to have passed away. Efforts were put in by BP to cap the well but unfortunately, it did not work out. In July 2010, BP had capped the well. However, it was too late since the incident occurred as the oil had flowed in large quantities to the ocean and it already had created the biggest environmental loss in the history. Cleveland, C (2011) discusses that Since Transocean Ltd and BP were working under a contract for drilling the well, the government of the US considered BP to be responsible for the accident, and therefore, BP was accountable for paying all the cleanup costs which occurred due to the oil spill. BP agreed with the US government on accepting the responsibility of all costs. Even if the costs are covered, it was analysed as the loss which had numerous negative effects on the entire globe. Potential Implications on Corporate Governance: Because of the emergence of the crisis regarding the Deepwater Horizon, the Corporate Governance of BP had to work and plan about the potential implications in an effective manner. Through this incidence, BP Corporate Governance learned many lessons in terms of delivering environmental safety and fulfilling its commitments. In order to respond well for the incident, the Corporate Governance of BP formed the Gulf of Mexico committee. The responsibility of this committee was to restore the losses that occurred in the Gulf of Mexico. Following are some initiatives that were to be implemented after the incidence of Deepwater Horizon oil spillage: Cleaning of the spill: The BP board had to monitor the operations of the company in terms of capping the well. The management of the company kept the board in contact and thus, it provides updates to the board on a regular basis. Moreover, the board of BP has decided to continuously work on cleaning up the beaches as well as to work for the communities which are affected by this disaster. Financial Claims There have been seen many legitimate claims against BP, Therefore, the company is now meeting these claims as well as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s board is monitoring these claims. The board regarding Corporate Governance of BP has planned about establishing a trust fund and this has been approved with the consent of the White House. This step is going to be taken so that BPÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment for accepting all the claims occurring from the event can be proved to all its stakeholders. Financial Liquidity BP was unable to cap the well after this major event. It is due to this reason that the company faced a major loss in terms of its financial standing as well as it suffered negativity in financing because its credit-rating decreased instantly. BP (2010) reports that the company suffered huge financial uncertainties as it lost a huge amount of money in paying claims as well as in establishing a trust fund which cost around 20 billion dollars. Therefore, considering the Corporate Governance of the company, the BP board reviewed the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s dividend policy. According to the current financial situation of BP after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the company has planned to cancel the dividends of its first quarter. Additionally, it made an announcement that in 2010, the second and third quarters of the year would have no interim dividends. Furthermore, the payments of dividends would be made in 2011. The present financial situation of BP after the incident suggests that the cash resources available to the company are quite less now as compared to its earlier financial situations. Therefore, for having a stable financial position in the market, the board has reduced the level of spending on the capital of the company in 2010. However, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate governance is also making sure that the stakeholders are aware of this. Investigation by BP: An investigation has been undertaken by the corporate governance of BP, for identifying the events which surround the unforgettable incident of the Deepwater Horizon. According to Gupta, S (2010), the oil is still there in the underwater in a large quantity. The company is also focusing on coming up with some really effective recommendations relating to the prevention of such accidental occurrences in future. BP produced a report after the conduction of the investigation, named The Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report. This report from the BP included the recommendations for preventing the similar accident in any future situation. Internal initiatives of BP: After the accident, there are some internal initiatives made by BPÃ¢â¬â¢s management. These initiatives also include the new possible learning for the improvement of the risk processes within the company. One of the initiatives is the development of an entirely new division of safety and risk. Additionally, one more initiative by the company includes dividing one business, i.e. Exploration and Production segment into three different divisions i.e. Exploration, Development and Production. Dividing a single operation into three different functions means that it will further promote the development in terms of expertise and risk management for the long run. Rebuilding the Reputation: The trust and credibility of BP for its stakeholders is affected a lot after the company held responsible for the huge environmental and societal loss. It can take years to rebuild that trust. Therefore, the corporate governance has started playing an active role in bringing back the reputation of the company which existed before the incident. However, no matter how efficiently the company focuses on rebuilding the previous reputation of BP, it seems quite impossible that it manages to stand out once again in the market facing other similar companies in the industry. Now it has to pay for it as well as wait for a long time to face the world again. BPÃ¢â¬â¢s Business Strategy Because of the incident of Deepwater Horizon, the board of BP is reviewing its strategy and made changes in it as following: The events in the Gulf of Mexico led the board to undertake a review of strategy. Led by the group chief executive and his team, the board attempted to address the key challenge of how to regain shareholder value and address core issues, including: Ã¢â¬ ¢ To focus on BPÃ¢â¬â¢s operations geographically Ã¢â¬ ¢ To manage BPÃ¢â¬â¢s risk more effectively Ã¢â¬ ¢ To focus on BPÃ¢â¬â¢s core competency Ã¢â¬ ¢ To reset the portfolio of BP Conclusion In April 2010, the Globe faced a disaster in the Mexican Gulf which was ranked as the one which caused the highest loss for the environment, society, as well as the economy in the US history, i.e. Deepwater Horizon oil spillage. Analysing the event from JSEAFORD (2010),the brand image of BP has been suffered to a great extent, negatively affecting its financial position as well as the shareholder value and the reputation and credibility among its stakeholders. BP having a recognition of being a global company, have the positioning in the minds of people that it is a company which does not care much about the planet if it has to make profits. This perception can be justified from the fact that according to The New York Times (2011), BP took steps which actually saved their own time for working through the rig and just did not care about the dangers involved in those steps. Additionally, for global organisations to achieve success, it is essential for them that they should build a mindset in the organisational culture about focusing not only on profits, but it is quite significant to focus equally on the planet as well as its people. This indicates that an organisation can only prosper and earn its desired profits if it aligns the wellbeing of the environment and the people living in the society, as they also are the stakeholders of the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s business. Without aligning the business with environment and society means that the company is just running its business on selfish terms. Thus, the BP incident shows that the environmental and societal concerns were not present in the scenario, which resulted into extremely negative consequences. However, concluding from The Economist (2011), environmentalists say that the consequences are so negative that the surroundings as well as the people living and working near the affected place are going to recover after many more years. List of References BP (2010) BP Annual Report 2010 [online] available at [24th March 2011] Cleveland, C (2011) The Encyclopedia of Earth [online] available from http://www.eoearth.org/article/Deepwater_Horizon_oil_spill?topic=50364 [24th March 2011] Gupta, S (2010) Gulf spill: Is the oil lurking underwater[online] available from [24th March 2011] JSEAFORD (2010) The Impact of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill [online] available from [24th March 2011] R, Z (2010) Gulf Oil Spill: BP Oil Well Is Now Dead [online] available from http://morichesdaily.com/2010/09/gulf-oil-spill-bp-oil-dead/ [24th March 2011] The Economist (2011) What lies beneath [online] available from [24th March 2011] The New York Times (2011) Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill (2010) [online] available from [24th March 2011] How to cite Study of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon BP oil spillage in the Mexican Gulf, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Stellar Remnants Essay There is as yet no comprehensive theory to describe the final stages of evolution of a star: the formation of a white dwarf, the collapse to a neutron star or black hole, or the total disruption of a star by thermonuclear detonation. There is no clear and consistent transition from the equilibrium stages of evolution, as described by a stellar evolutionary track on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, to the final thermonuclear detonation or collapse of the coreÃ¢â¬ ¦- T. A. Lozinskaya, American Institute of Physics (1992 : 115)White dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes are born when normal stars dies, that is, when most of their nuclear fuel has been consumed. A solar mass star spends about 1010 years on the main sequence, during which time hydrogen fusion (into helium) provides its energy source. Eventually, the amount of H in the core becomes depleted, much of the initial H having been converted into He. As the scale of proton-proton fusion (i.e., hydrogen burning) diminishes, the equilibrium between the forces of gravity and the radiation pressure within a star is upset and the core contracts under gravity. As gravity takes over, the core temperature rises (Rose 1998).The evolution of stars accelerates when they near the end of their lives as normal stars, with their structure undergoing radical changes. As the core becomes smaller and heats up, the outside of the star cools and expands. During these final stages, a significant fraction of the mass of these stars, enriched with heavy elements generated in their interiors, is dispersed into surrounding space. The ejected gas, mixed with local interstellar medium can then be recycled to form new stars and planetary systems. Left behind is a compact stellar remnant Ã¢â¬â a white dwarf, with a radius 100 times smaller than that of the Sun; or a neutron star, with a radius 1,000 times smaller; or a black hole, with an effective radius that is several times smaller yet though its mass is comparable to that of a neutron star. Stellar remnant is thus a collective term used to describe the exotic objects that are left when a high mass star or a low mass star dies: white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes (Fields et al., 1998).Stellar objects can in fact be more exotic than we know them to be. For instance, most of the mass of any galaxy is dominated by a component concentrated at the center of the galaxy. This nucleus dominates the galaxyÃ¢â¬â¢s dynamics throughout, and is known as the dark matter halo. The mysterious dark matter halo is the single largest part of the Galaxy, covering the space between 100,000 light-years to 300,000 light-years from the galactic center. Scientists often speculate on the possibility of this dark matter being made up of stellar remnants, such as primordial white dwarfs (Silk 1993). On the other hand, Massive Compact Halo Objects, or MACHOs, are surmised to exist in huge numbers in vast halos surrounding galaxies, presumably accounting for much of the missing matter of the galaxies. Stellar remnants are again sometimes considered to be possible candidates for MACHOS (Graff et al, 1999). In short, there are grounds to believe that the mysterious missing matter of universe is at least in part made up of dying stars, although there are growing indications pointing in other directions.Stellar death need not be regarded as the endpoint of a star, most commonly it denotes a very dynamic and intriguing final phase of a starÃ¢â¬â¢s life cycle, representing a metamorphosis in which stars that had been powered by nuclear reactions are reborn as Ã¢â¬Å"compact objects.Ã¢â¬ The evolution and eventual fate of stars in the late stages of their lives are critically dependent on the amount of matter they have at birth. Most stars with a mass more than about eight times that of the Sun end their lives in the titanic explosion of a supernova. The stellar remnants are neutron stars or black holes. Stars less massive than about eight times the mass of the Sun evolve into red giants, so large that at the position of the Sun they would envelop the orbit of Earth. Their distended envelopes, or the planetary nebulae, are ejected soon afterward. The stellar remnants in this case are white dwarfs. On occasions, white dwarfs themselves can lead to supernova explosions and result in neutron stars.Becoming these small dense spheres of degenerate matter that slowly cool and radiate heat, most stars end their lives. However, these fantastic star remnants have a Ã¢â¬Å"pulsatingÃ¢â¬ life of their own. Besides their exceedingly small size, the most fundamental way in which the three species of dead stars or stellar remnants differ from normal stars is that they do not burn nuclear fuel, and cannot support themselves against gravitational collapse by generating thermal pressure. In an ordinary gas, the pressure depends on the density and on the temperature. At very high densities, a mutual repulsion develops between electrons. This repulsi on is not due to the classical behavior of their electrical charge: rather, it is due to their quantum mechanical properties. This repulsion produces an additional pressure, the so-called degenerate pressure, which depends on the density alone, not the temperature. Thus, the material can be heated without expanding, and can be cooled without shrinking. The degenerate pressure halts the gravitational collapse, like the ideal gas pressure, with one significant difference: when material is added, the gravity of the star increases, but the increase in the degenerate pressure is not as high as in ordinary matter. Therefore, the star shrinks. The higher the mass of a degenerate star, the smaller its volume.White dwarfs are supported by the pressure of degenerate electrons, while neutron stars are supported largely by the pressure of degenerate neutrons. Electrons degenerate when the density equals to 109 kg/m3. Neutrons are degenerate when the density equals to 1018 kg / m3. Black holes, on the other hand, are completely collapsed stars Ã¢â¬â that is, stars that could not find any means to hold back the inward pull of gravity and therefore collapsed to singularities (Tayler 2004).White DwarfsMedium-sized stars, such as the sun, eventually consume all of the nuclear fuel available. A star of mass in the range of 1 to 8 solar masses collapses at the core when all the protons in the core have been fused into helium nuclei. The core temperature rises enabling the helium nuclei to fuse into heavier nuclei. The core keeps shrinking and becoming hotter, while the surface expands. Hydrogen nuclei (i.e., protons) surrounding the core start to fuse and the outer layers of the star expand and cool. The star swells out to become a red giant. In the very last stage of its life as a star, the core collapses into a white dwarf, while the remaining hydrogen drifts away into a shell of gas as a Ã¢â¬Å"planetary nebula.Ã¢â¬ The core contracts until electron degeneracy pressure provides the support against gravity, after which the star does not shrink as it cools.White dwarfs evolve from the central stars of these so-called planetary nebulae, and their final mass depends on the original mass their main-sequence stars. For a star of one solar mass, the resulting white dwarf is of about 0.6 solar masses, compressed into approximately the volume of the Earth. If the progenitor star was 2-8 MSun, the white dwarf would be 0.7-1.4 MSun. For stars less than twice the suns mass, the corresponding white dwarf mass is 0.6-0.7 sun mass. For stars less than the mass of sun, the final white dwarf mass would be less than 0.6 sun mass.White dwarfs are hot (~10,000 K), low luminosity stars composed mainly of carbon, helium, neon, magnesium and other elements. The starsÃ¢â¬â¢ light comes from the trapped residual heat. The temperatures in the star, however, are not hot enough to have carbon and oxygen burn, as a result no further nuclear reactions occur. The exact chemic al composition of the white dwarfs varies from one to another, depending upon the original mass of the progenitor star. A white dwarf is composed chiefly of carbon and oxygen if the progenitor star is approximately of sunÃ¢â¬â¢s mass and is therefore unable to ignite carbon fusion. A white dwarf is composed chiefly of oxygen, neon, and magnesium, when the progenitor star is of a few solar masses, and capable of setting off carbon fusion to form magnesium, neon, and smaller amounts of other elements. White dwarfs are very dim. The luminosities of the central stars of planetary nebulae drop rapidly as they evolve into white-dwarf end-state (Rose 1998). The luminosity of these white dwarfs appears to be particularly low also because their surface is small. Although they are relatively easy to discover, follow-up observations to discover their astrophysical properties require gigantic telescopes (Luyten 1971).The electrons in white dwarfs are degenerate, and therefore the more mass th ere is in the white dwarf, the smaller the radius. For example, for O.5 MSun, the radius is 1.5 REarth, and for 1.0 MSun, the radius becomes 0.9 REarth. The largest possible white dwarf mass is 1.4 MSun. This is called the Chandrasekhar limit, and is the most mass that the electron degenerate core can support without collapsing under its own gravity. A white dwarf star is unstable if it exceeds 1.4 MSun. This upper limit on its mass represents the maximum possible density of matter above which electrons and protons fuse to form neutrons. A white dwarf star of mass below 1.4 MSun might accrete matter due to its intense gravity from the surrounding space or it might draw matter in from it companion if it is a binary star. If this process of accretion causes its mass to reach 1.4 MSun, an outburst of energy and matter is caused as the star overheats due to the interaction between its electrons and protons. As white dwarfs mass exceeds the Chandrasekhar limit, the electron degeneracy pr essure fails due to electron capture and the star collapses and explodes into a Type I supernova. In the collapse, electrons and protons combine in the core to form neutrons. Nuclei in the outer layers absorb neutrons to form heavier nuclei before the outer layers are thrown off by the collapsing core. This process would result in the formation of a neutron star (Tayler 2004).Except in the aforementioned scenario, white dwarfs are stable. Once a white dwarf forms, it begins to cool off, but the degenerate pressure inside does not drop and the star does not shrink on cooling. The stability of the white dwarf is the outcome of the inward pull of gravity being balanced by the degeneracy pressure of the stars electrons. With no fuel left to burn, the star radiates its remaining heat into space for billions of years. As the star cools, its luminosity decreases, and this process slows over time, so that the dimmer the star gets, the slower it gets dimmer. The correspondence between the lu minosity and the age for a 0.6 MSun white dwarf wouldÃ go as follows: 0.1 LSun at 20 million years, 0.01 LSun at 300 million years, 0.001 LSun at 1 billion years and 0.0001 LSun at 6 billion years. At 6 billion years, although the temperature (and therefore the color) of the white dwarf is about the same as the Suns surface, the luminosity would be much less, because this star, or rather stellar remnant, is so tiny in size. The faintest observed white dwarfs are therefore very old (Mestel, KoesterÃ Salpeter 1992). Eventually white dwarfs would fade off, perhaps becoming part of dark matter.Neutron Stars, Pulsars, and Black HolesA neutron star is the core of a supernova remnant and is a million times denser than the Earth. Neutron stars rotate rapidly, some of them emitting radio waves in oppositely directed beams that sweep round as the star rotates. Main-sequence stars with mass in the range of 8-25 MSun become supernovae (Type II), lose a lot of their envelope, and leave a degenerate neutron core behind. A supernova is an extremely violent event, producing a colossal outburst of light which decays with a half-life of about 80 days. The star is literally blown apart, leaving a core that may consist of a neutron star or a black hole, or, in some cases it may get blown apart completely leaving nothing behind. Neutron stars and black holes are thus the compact stellar remnants that form from the most massive stars (Wijers et al., 1998). Neutron stars are the extremely dense cores of dead stars composed only of neutrons. It is estimated that there are 105 active and 108 defunct neutron stars in the Galaxy (Lorimer et al., 1993) Like white dwarfs, neutron stars also get smaller when they are more massive. For example, a 0.7 MSun neutron star has a radius of 10 km. The maximum mass of a neutron star is assumed to be between 1.5 and 2.7 MSun.Neutron stars collapse from larger stars, and during that collapse, angular momentum must be conserved. Therefore, the stars are rotating very rapidly. Occasionally, a pulsar suddenly increases its rate of rotation, causing its period to jump in a so-called glitch. This occurs when a pulsar suddenly contract, just as when a spinning ice skater pulls his or her arms in. Pulsars also have large magnetic fields Ã¢â¬â a trillion times stronger than Earths Ã¢â¬â due to the collapse and compression of the original magnetic field of the star. The axis of a neutron starÃ¢â¬â¢s strong magnetic field is not necessarily the same as the axis of its rotation. Neutron stars become pulsars when the magnetic field axis is not aligned with the rotation axis. A pulsar is a rapidly rotating neutron star, created as the stellar remnant during a Type II supernova explosion of a massive star (Gotthelf, Vasisht 1998). Along the magnetic field lines that come out of the poles of these pulsars are many spiraling charged particles, which emit radiation. Each time the beam sweeps past the Earth, a radio pulse is detec ted. The period of a pulsar, or the gap between two pulses, is most commonly less than a second, though it typically ranges from 0.25 to 2 seconds (Sturrock 1971). Each pulse lasts on the order of a few microseconds. A typical pulsar is of the order of less than 100 km in diameter and with a mass of about two suns. All pulsars would gradually slow down. This is evident from the gradual increase of the period of a pulsar.A supernova event can either lead to a neutron star or a black hole. If the mass of the stellar remnant is very high, no physical process can provide support against the gravitational collapse (Padmanabhan 2000). The neutron degeneracy pressure will be insufficient to prevent collapse below the Schwarzschild radius. Schwarzchild radius is the critical radius at which singularity occurs and for mass M, this radius Rs is given byRs = 2GM/ c2If an object is completely contained within its Schwarzchild radius, a singularity will occur (Kenyon 1990). Ã In the case of a massive star, it will form a black hole and is likely to exert a very strong gravitational influence on its surroundings. The mass at which the stellar remnant becomes a black hole is not known with certainty, but is estimated at between 2 and 3 solar masses. Once a black hole has formed, and after all the stellar matter has disappeared into the singularity, the geometry of space-time itself continues to collapse towards the singularity (Luminet 1998). A black hole is, by definition, a region in spacetime in which the gravitational field is so strong that it precludes even light from escaping to infinity. Black holes arise because gravity affects the way light waves travel through space. Einsteins general relativity both predicted black holes and is employed to the full in the description of black holes.Black holes are objects who properties are absolutely fantastic. The properties of space and time are changed inside the black hole in a most puzzling manner.The black holes of natur e are the most perfect macroscopic objects there are in the universe: the only elements in their construction are our concepts of space and time. And since the general theory of relativity provides only a single unique family of solutions for their descriptions, they are the simples objects as well. (Chandrasekhar 1992 : 1)Space and time get coiled into what resembles a funnel, with a boundary deep inside it (event horizon) beyond which both time and space break down into quanta. Black holes are also the most grandiose energy sources of the universe. It is most likely that what we observe in remote quasars and in the exploding nuclei of galaxies are manifestations of black holes. There is considerable evidence for the presence of massive black holes in the center of active galaxies (Collmar Schonfelder 1998). Massive black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) accrete matter from their environments, converting gravitational energy to electromagnetic energy. However, the case for m assive black holes being present at the center of most galaxies is not yet watertight (Maoz 1998).In the same way as black holes which can be paradoxically regarded as the most complex and yet most simple objects existing in space and time, the stellar remnants that are usually regarded as the dying embers of the fires that were once living stars happen to be some of the most active, dynamic and extreme objects in the known universe. Even if they do not account for the dark matter of the universe, these compact astronomical objects continue to be some of the most mysterious entities imaginable. The study of them has yet to reveal us greater secrets in the years to come.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
The Globe Theater essays The Globe Theater changed the course of English Theater forever. The Globe broke rules of ownership, class standards, and promoted the greatest playwright ever, William Shakespeare. Throughout its history the Globe Theater has produced the best of Shakespeare and his amazing plays and when it was closed London never felt the same. But once again Shakespeare is upon us. The newly re-built Globe gives us one more chance to re-live Shakespeares plays. Through examining the history and collapse of the Globe Theater one can see how it has come to its recent re-birth, and that it is here to stay. The Globe Theater was opened in London in 1599. James Burbage, half owner of the theater, built the Globe. The other half of the theater belonged to five men of Lord Chamberlains Acting Company. William Shakespeare was the most famous member and owner in the Company. During this time period, it was unusual for the players to actually be owners of the theater at which they performed (Miller-Schutz 1). The Globe was a central feature of London life. It was the place of the first performances of Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth. The Globe Theater was a gathering place for all social classes. Normally it would be uncommon for the Queen or any other royalty to be in the presence of so many commoners, but at the Globe it was different. There were no social standards on admission, only on where you were able to sit. The structure of the Globe was made out of timber and built in a round shape. The three-story theater had twenty wooden bays, oak pillars, a thatched roof, and a permanent stage. The Globe had an approximate diameter of a hundred feet, which allowed it to hold about three thousand spectators (Gurr 104). In 1613, during a performance of Henry VIII the Globe accidentally burned down, luckily none of the thousands of audience members were hurt. John Orrell describes that day best in his book, Rebui...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Salazar Surname Meaning and Origin - About Genealogy The Salazar surname indicates one who came from Salazar in northern Burgos, Castile, Spain- a place name meaning corral or manor house - probably from sala, meaning hall and Basque za(h)ar, meaning old.Ã Salazar could also mean a dweller in or near the house or palace, or a dweller near the place sacred to St. Lazar.Ã Salazar is an ancient surname found in Vizcaya, Castile, Navarre, Santander and Burgos, Spain. Salazar is the 44th most common Hispanic surname. Surname Origin:Ã Spanish Alternate Surname Spellings:Ã SALASAR, DE SALAZAR Famous People with the Surname SALAZAR Juan Carlos Salazar - well known Venezuelan singer and cuatro playerAntÃ ³nio de Oliveira Salazar - Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968; also served as acting President of the Republic in 1951Abel de Lima SalazarÃ - Portuguese physician, writer, researcher and painterAntonio Sebastin de Toledo Molina y SalazarÃ - Viceroy of New Spain Where Do People With the VARGAS Surname Live? The surname distribution data atÃ ForebearsÃ ranks Salazar as the 340th most common surname in the world, identifying it as most prevalent in Mexico and with the highest density in Costa Rica. Salazar is the 9th most common surname in Ecuador, 22nd in Venezuela, 27th in Costa Rica and Peru, and 33rd in the Philippines. Salazar is no longer a surname that is common in Spain according to WorldNames PublicProfiler; the Salasar spelling is a bit more common. Within the United States, the Salazar surname is very common in New Mexico and Texas. Genealogy Resources for the Surname SALAZAR 100 Common Hispanic Surnames Their Meanings. Garcia, Martinez, Rodriguez, Lopez, Hernandez... Are you one of the millions of people sporting one of these top 100 common Hispanic last names?How to Research Hispanic Heritage. Learn how to get started researchingÃ your Hispanic ancestors, including the basics of family tree research and country-specific organizations, genealogical records, and resources for Spain, Latin America, Mexico, Brazil, the Caribbean, and other Spanish speaking countries.Salazar Family Crest - Its Not What You Think. Contrary to what you may hear, there is no such thing as a Salazar family crest or coat of arms for the Salazar surname.Ã Coats of arms are granted to individuals, not families, and may rightfully be used only by the uninterrupted male-line descendants of the person to whom the coat of arms was originally granted.Ã SALAZAR Family Genealogy Forum. Search this popular genealogy forum for the Salazar surname to find others who might be researchi ng your ancestors, or post your own Salazar query. FamilySearch - SALAZAR Genealogy. Access over 1.7 million free historical records and lineage-linked family trees posted for the Salazar surname and its variations on this free genealogy website hosted by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.GeneaNet - Salazar Records. GeneaNet includes archival records, family trees, and other resources for individuals with the Salazar surname, with a concentration on records and families from France, Spain, and other European countries.SALAZAR Surname Family Mailing Lists. This free mailing list for researchers of the Salazar surname and its variations includes subscription details and searchable archives of past messages.DistantCousin.com - SALAZAR Genealogy Family History. Explore free databases and genealogy links for the last name Salazar.The Salazar Genealogy and Family Tree Page. Browse family trees and links to genealogical and historical records for individuals with the last name Salazar from the website of Genealogy Today. - References: Surname Meanings Origins Cottle, Basil.Ã Penguin Dictionary of Surnames. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1967. Dorward, David.Ã Scottish Surnames. Collins Celtic (Pocket edition), 1998. Fucilla, Joseph.Ã Our Italian Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 2003. Hanks, Patrick and Flavia Hodges.Ã A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1989. Hanks, Patrick.Ã Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press, 2003. Reaney, P.H.Ã A Dictionary of English Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1997. Smith, Elsdon C.Ã American Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997.